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Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Chinqqqa Health  1580125723 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New
CHINqqqA-HEALTH__1580125723

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map 

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1	Epidemiology
2	Symptoms and treatment
3	Virology
3.1	Infection
3.2	Reservoir
3.3	Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4	Structural biology
5	Vaccine research
6	References
7	External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID	MN908947
Genome size	30,473 bases
Year of completion	2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1	Human coronaviruses
1.1	Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2	Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3	Middle East respiratory syndrome
2	Replication
3	Taxonomy
4	History
4.1	Evolution
5	Other animals
5.1	Diseases caused
5.2	In domestic animals
6	See also
7	References
8	Further reading
9	External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]

Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Chinqqqa Health 1580125723 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New

CHINqqqA-HEALTH__1580125723

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]

Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Cn_Hk_Newcase_To_Five270120_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Cm_Contemplating_Tightening_States_Entry_Points_Following_Wuhan_Coronavirus_Outbreak_In_China_5e2eaf1d1e8a9_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpeg Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Chinqqqa_Health__1580125723_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Chinese_Student_Who_Travelled_From_Wuhan_In_Isolation_In_Waterford_As_Precautionary_Measure_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Chinawuhan_600x248_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
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